Philosophy Revision Checklist

Plato

Can you give brief definitions of:

  • the Form of the Good
  • the Forms
  • the Realm of the Forms
  • Plato’s view of the knowledge

Can you explain:

  • how Plato resolves the problems of constant change raised by Heraclitus
  • how Plato uses the idea of proportion and ratios to develop his ideas
  • the Simile of the Divided Line
  • the Simile of the Cave

Can you give arguments for and against?

  • the Realm of the Forms
  • the Form of the Good
  • the idea that this world is not true reality
  • Plato’s treatment of knowledge and belief
  • Plato’s belief that only the philosopher has true knowledge

Aristotle

Can you give brief definitions of:

  • material cause
  • formal cause
  • efficient cause
  • final cause
  • Prime Mover

Can you explain:

  • how Aristotle’s theory of formal cause differs from Plato’s theory of the Forms
  • how the four causes interrelate
  • the connection between final cause and the Prime Mover
  • how Aristotle’s concept of god differs from that of Aquinas

Can you give arguments for and against:

  • Aristotle’s methodology
  • his theory of efficient cause
  • final cause
  • the Prime Mover

Soul, Body and Mind

Can you give brief definitions of:

  • monism
  • dualism
  • materialism
  • substance dualism
  • category error

Can you explain:

  • the differences between Plato and Aristotle on the nature of the soul
  • Descartes’ substance dualism
  • Gilbert Ryle’s reasons for rejecting substance dualism
  • Richard Dawkins’ theory of Soul One and Soul Two

Can you give arguments for and against:

  • Plato’s theory of the soul
  • Aquinas’ notion that my soul is not me
  • materialist ideas of the soul
  • substance dualism

The Existence of God: Observation

Can you give brief definitions of:

  • cosmological arguments
  • design arguments
  • contingency
  • necessity
  • infinite regress

Can you explain:

  • how Paley develops his version of the design argument
  • Aquinas’ version of the cosmological argument
  • Hume’s objection to causation
  • Hume’s reasons for rejecting design arguments

Can you give arguments for and against:

  • the argument that the universe must have a first cause
  • the argument that because everything in the universe is contingent, there must be a necessary being on which it depends
  • the argument that God is the only explanation of the universe
  • the argument that there is evident design in the universe

The Existence of God: Reason

Can you give a brief definition of:

  • the a priori
  • the principle of non-contradiction
  • a defining predicate
  • a necessary being
  • a contingent being

Can you explain:

  • Chapter Two of Proslogion
  • Chapter Three of Proslogion
  • Gaunilo’s onjection
  • Kant’s objections to ontological arguments

Can you give arguments for and against:

  • God as a necessary being
  • Gaunilo’s objection to Anselm
  • God’s existence as self-evident
  • existence as a defining predicate of the concept of God?

Religious Experiences

Can you give brief definitions of:

  • noetic experience
  • transience
  • the wholly other
  • ineffability
  • the numinous

Can you explain:

  • Hick’s theory of religious experience as ‘experiencing as’
  • the nature of conversation experience
  • the concept of mystical experience
  • transcendence and immanence

Can you give arguments for and against:

  • religious experience as evidence for God
  • different religions have different religious experiences
  • correct interpretation of religious experience
  • William James’ categorisation of religious experience

The Problem of Evil

Can you give brief definitions of:

  • theodicy
  • soul-making theodicy
  • soul-deciding theodicy
  • moral evil
  • non-moral evil

Can you explain:

  • instrumentalism
  • evil as privation
  • the free will defence
  • dysteleological evil

Can you give arguments for and against:

  • Augustine’s use of Genesis in his theodicy
  • Irenaeus’ argument for evil as soul-making
  • Hick’s concept of hell
  • DZ Phillips’ opposition to soul-making theodicy

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